Published on September 27, 2023

Lexical Analysis Tools: An Insight into ‘Lex’

by Psych Times Staff

In the fascinating world of compiler design, where programming languages are transformed into machine-readable code, one of the fundamental stages is lexical analysis. Lexical analysis, often referred to as scanning or tokenization, is the initial step in the compilation process. It plays a crucial role in breaking down the source code into smaller, manageable units called tokens. These tokens are then used by subsequent stages of the compiler to perform syntax analysis, semantic analysis, and code generation. In this blog, we will delve deep into the world of lexical analysis tools, with a particular focus on a renowned tool known as Lex, which is widely used in compiler design.

What is a Lexical Analyzer in Compiler Design?

Before we dive into the specifics of Lex, let’s first understand what lexical analyzer in compiler design.

lexical analyzer in compiler design is the component of a compiler responsible for scanning the source code and breaking it down into tokens. It is the first step in the compilation process and serves as the bridge between the high-level programming language used by developers and the low-level machine code that the computer understands.

The primary functions of a lexical analyzer in compiler design include:

  1. Recognizing the basic building blocks of a programming language, such as keywords, identifiers, literals, and operators.
  2. Ignoring irrelevant characters like white spaces and comments.
  3. Identifying and reporting errors in the source code, such as lexical errors (e.g., misspelled keywords).

To perform these tasks efficiently, lexical analyzers often employ regular expressions to define the syntax of the tokens they need to recognize. These regular expressions are then converted into finite automata for efficient pattern matching.

Enter Lex in Compiler Design

lex in compiler design is a powerful tool in the world of lexical analysis. It was created by Mike Lesk and Eric Schmidt at Bell Labs in the 1970s and has since become a standard tool for compiler developers. Lex is used to generate lexical analyzers (also known as lexers or scanners) for various programming languages and applications.

lex in compiler design operates by taking a set of regular expressions and their corresponding actions as input and produces a lexer in C or other target programming languages. The generated lexer scans the source code, identifies tokens based on the specified regular expressions, and executes the associated actions when a token is recognized.

How Lex Works in Compiler Design

Now that we have a basic understanding of lex in compiler design and its role in compiler design, let’s delve into how lex in compiler design actually works.

  1. Defining Regular Expressions: In Lex, the first step is to define regular expressions that describe the syntax of tokens in the source code. These regular expressions serve as patterns for identifying tokens. For example, a regular expression might define how to recognize keywords, identifiers, or numeric literals.
  2. Specifying Actions: Alongside each regular expression, Lex allows you to specify corresponding actions in the form of C code or other target language code. These actions are executed when the lexer matches a token with the associated regular expression. You can use these actions to perform various tasks, such as recording token values, handling errors, or generating intermediate code.
  3. Generating the Lexer: After defining the regular expressions and actions, you run Lex to generate the lexer code. This generated code is a complete lexical analyzer tailored to the language or application you are working with.
  4. Integration with the Compiler: The generated lexer is integrated into the compiler’s front-end. When the compiler processes the source code, it feeds it to the lexer. The lexer scans the source code character by character, applying the regular expressions to identify tokens. When a token is recognized, the associated action is executed.
  5. Token Output: As tokens are recognized, they are passed to the next stages of the compiler, such as the parser. These tokens serve as input to the parser, which then constructs the abstract syntax tree (AST) of the program.

Advantages of Using Lex in Compiler Design

Lex offers several advantages for compiler designers and developers:

  1. Rapid Development: Lex simplifies the process of building a lexical analyzer. Designers can focus on specifying regular expressions and actions, while Lex generates the corresponding lexer code. This speeds up the development of the compiler front-end.
  2. Modularity: Lexical analysis is a separate and modular phase in compiler design. Lex-generated lexers are highly modular and can be easily integrated into different compilers and tools.
  3. Flexibility: Lex allows for great flexibility in defining the syntax of tokens and the associated actions. This flexibility is crucial for handling various programming languages and dialects.
  4. Error Handling: Lex provides mechanisms for handling errors gracefully. You can define actions to report and recover from lexical errors, making the compiler more robust.
  5. Portability: Lex-generated lexers can be generated in different programming languages, making them suitable for a wide range of compiler development projects.

Example: Lexical Analysis with Lex

To illustrate how Lex works in practice, let’s consider a simple example. Suppose we want to create a lexer for a basic arithmetic expression language that recognizes operators, numbers, and parentheses.

Here’s a snippet of Lex code for this task:




include <stdio.h>




[0-9]+  { printf(“NUMBER: %s\n”, yytext); }

[+\-/] { printf(“OPERATOR: %s\n”, yytext); }

\(      { printf(“LEFT PARENTHESIS\n”); }

\)      { printf(“RIGHT PARENTHESIS\n”); }

[ \t\n] ; // Ignore white spaces and tabs

.       { printf(“ERROR: Invalid character: %s\n”, yytext); }




int main() {


    return 0;



In this example, we define regular expressions to recognize numbers, operators, and parentheses. We also ignore white spaces and report errors for any invalid characters. When you run Lex on this code, it generates a lexer that recognizes and prints the tokens in an input arithmetic expression.


Lexical analysis is a vital phase in compiler design, and Lex is a powerful tool for creating lexical analyzers. It simplifies the development of lexers by allowing designers to specify regular expressions and actions, which Lex then transforms into lexer code. This code is an essential component of a compiler’s front-end, enabling the transformation of source code into tokens for further processing.

In this blog, we explored the role of lexical analyzers in compiler design, discussed the significance of Lex in this context, and provided a simple example of how Lex can be used to create a lexer. As you delve deeper into the world of compiler construction, you’ll find that Lex is a valuable tool that can streamline the development process and make the creation of lexers a more efficient and manageable task.

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